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heating, cooling


The aim of baking is to enhance the eating quality (taste, texture) of food by heating it with hot air. A secondary objective of baking is to preserve the food, by destruction of the microorganisms and reduction in the water activity at the surface of the food. However, the shelf-life of most baked foods is limited, unless products are refrigerated or packaged. Baking can be applied to... go to >> Baking


Frying is a cooking operation where the food is cooked in edible oil at temperatures in the region of 200°C. Vegetable oil, or a mixture of animal fat and vegetable oil, is normally used. Raw materials such as fish, potatoes and chicken can be fried, e.g. in the production of products such as fish fingers, potato chips and chicken nuggets. The product is fed into the fryer on a... go to >> Frying


The objective of melting is to obtain a phase change from solid to liquid, in order to prepare the material for further processing (e.g. for fats, processed cheese) or to recover the melted fraction (i.e. in fat recovery). The main applications of melting in the food industry are in chocolate moulding, the production of processed cheese, the processing of oils and fats and the recovery of... go to >> Melting


The aim of the process is to dry the product and to enhance its aroma, and/or to enhance the structure of raw products. Typical products that are roasted are: coffee, cereals and pre-processed cereals, nuts, cacao, chicory, and fruits. The raw product is usually exposed to hot air (at temperatures over 100°C). Sometimes the raw product is pre-dried. In this instance, first the water... go to >> Roasting


Tempering serves three purposes: to ensure product quality and appearance to enable handling of liquid chocolate for various applications, e.g. demoulding to ensure viscosity control and enable net weight requirements to be met. Tempering is also the controlled thawing of meats. Tempering is applied in the manufacture of chocolate and chocolate containing... go to >> Tempering