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Grain milling

There are a number of cereals important as food sources, these include wheat, barley, maize, oats, rye and rice. Wheat and rye grain is milled into flour and is the prime ingredient used in the manufacture of products such as bread and biscuits. In some countries, rye is used for bread. Barley is one of the oldest cultivated cereals and is mainly used for animal feed. Barley of certain... go to >> Grain milling

Starch manufacture

Starch is a high molecular mass carbohydrate produced by plants as a food store. Starch and its derivatives are used in several sectors including food, paper and textile manufacture. Purified starch is usually a white powder that can be used as a thickening agent in the food industry. Starch used in food processing is usually chemically treated or “modified” to enhance desirable... go to >> Starch manufacture

Biscuit manufacture

The principal ingredients used in the manufacture of biscuits are wheat flour, fat and sugar. Water plays an important role in the biscuit making process but is largely removed during baking. Baked goods are normally decorated and ingredients like dried and wet fruit, cream, custard etc. are utilised. There are two basic dough types: hard doughs, and short doughs. Whatever the dough type,... go to >> Biscuit manufacture


One of the main bakery products is bread. Bread include several bakery products and the types vary significantly from country to country. E.g., the Ullmann`s Encyclopedia gives the following description: In France, about 80% of the bread is still produced in small bakeries. The most common traditionally eaten bread is the baguette. It is produced with four basic materials: flour, water,... go to >> Bread

Cake manufacture

The main ingredients used in cake manufacture are wheat flour, fat, eggs, sugar, milk powder, water flavourings and raising agents. Cakes are generally made using either the sugar batter or flour batter method. In the sugar batter method, the fat and sugar are creamed together and the egg is added in stages. Several alternate additions of flour and liquid are carried out throughout the mixing.... go to >> Cake manufacture