Water treatment (incoming process water)
The water used by food factories may be city water, groundwater or surface water. The type of water used depends on the application. When it is feasible to do so, and it will not affect food safety, water is recycled and re-used, after prior appropriate purification treatment, for specific process applications, e.g. washing, cleaning, make-up for utilities, and, exceptionally, for the process... go to >> Water treatment (incoming process water)
Refrigeration is generally understood to mean a lowering of the temperature from ambient temperature down to the standard boiling point of ethylene (ca. 170 K); low-temperature technology is from 170 K down to the melting point of nitrogen (63 K); and cryogenics is below 120 K. In a food factory refrigeration equipment is needed for cooling, chilling and freezing.
In many food... go to >> Refrigeration
Vacuums are used primarily to reduce the temperature at which operations take place thereby reducing potential deterioration in the quality of the material being processed or, in special cases (i.e. edible oil processing), to avoid unwanted oxidation of the product during processing at higher temperature.
A vacuum is applied to many unit operations in the food industry (drying,... go to >> Vacuum generation
Compressed air generation
Compressed air is generated to run a simple air tool (pneumatic transfer, aeration) or for more complicated tasks such as operation of pneumatic control.
Spirits: The use of water to totally empty the pipes is prohibited by regulation, moreover, it is not applied because it would result in dilution of the alcoholic drink which would hence become unusable, thus entailing significant losses... go to >> Compressed air generation
Cleaning and sanitising
In the food, drink and milk industry, the processing equipment and production facilities are cleaned and sanitised periodically, also in line with legal requirements. The frequency of doing this can vary considerably according to the products and processes. The aim of cleaning and sanitisation is to remove product remnants, other contaminants and microbes from the foregoing process run. The... go to >> Cleaning and sanitising