meat products or through heating of the foodstuffs in processing).
Water ovens allow the best homogeneity of heating to be obtained. The immersion in hot water causes weight loss, and results in proteins and greases being released into the water.
Shower ovens allow a good uniformity of heating and include the simultaneous action of water sent through the showers and the saturated steam which rises from the collecting basin, at the bottom of the oven, which is heated, in turn, by coils.
In steam ovens, the water shower is eliminated and any heating is due only to the steam produced in the collection basin.
Air ovens include, when it is necessary to control surface humidity, steam inlet and a recirculation of hot air which is obtained by passage through heat-exchangers.
Boiling is carried out by immersion in water at boiling temperature. In beer production, wort is boiled for about 1.5 hours in the wort kettle with hops or hop extracts, releasing bitter substances that are dissolved. A further aim of the wort boiling is the inactivation of all enzymes, sterilisation of the wort and concentration thereof.