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Salt consists of colorless crystals and has a distinctive taste. Salt is a general name for sodium chloride (NaCl). It is most familiar for being a food supplement, a flavor enhancer. However, only 5% of the production is used to this end. For 70% salt is used in the chemical industry, as chlorine source. Salt is also used to clear the roads of snow and ice, to soften water, to conserve food and to stabilize the earth for building.
Salt can be obtained from brine or from rock deposits (halite). Salt rocks are the result of the evaporation of oceans in prehistoric times. This salt can be excavated or it can be injected with water en sucked up. When water is sprayed, brine is obtained. Brine comes from oceans, salt water lakes (like the Dead sea) or underground pools. Apart from the NaCl the sources of salt contain many other salts, slate and quartz.
stainless steel. By the force with which the salt crystals are thrown in the drum they break and go through holes in the sides of the drum. Stones are harder than salt and do not break. Therefore they cannot go through the holes.
grinding process the salt crystals are reduced to a size of 2.5 cm. If smaller salt crystals are desired the salt should be reground. If more pure salt is desired the crystals can be dissolved and further processed as in the brine process.
vacuum evaporator or mechanic evaporator.
Afterwards, the strongly concentrated brine is washed with a very concentrated salt solution and subsequently with pure water. After 2 to 3 months draining a salt comes to being with a purity of 99.4%. The purity can be increased by repeating the washing process. In this way, salt with a purity of 99.8% can be obtained, which can be used in the food industry.
The crystals are dried in a hot air oven at 185°C and subsequently they are sorted by size.
boiling point of the brine is lower than with atmospheric pressure. This makes sure that less energy (in the form of steam) has to be added to bring the brine to and keep it at the right temperature.
The brine looses a lot of water during the evaporation process and a fat salt slurry remains. The slurry is removed, dried in an oven and sorted by size.
temperature just below the boiling point, usually to 90°C. During the evaporation process flakes of salt are formed on the surface. With lower temperatures larger flakes and with higher temperatures smaller flakes are formed. The flakes grow until they deposit in the pan. These flakes are caught and dried. When the brine is first partly evaporated by means of a vacuum evaporator a combination of flakes and crystals comes into being.
bread and is added to edible salt.
Subsequently magnesium carbonate, calcium silicate, calcium phosphate, magnesium silicate or calcium carbonate are added to prevent lumping and therefore to increase the dispersion.
Nitrite is added to salt for the meat industry.