Puff pastrypastry is a crisp, layered and baked pastry. The puff pastry is used in for example cracknels, croissants, sausage rolls and apple turnovers. The puff pastry can be made by several methods. The method mentioned below is the French one.
Puff pastry consists of layers of pastry with butter in between. During the baking water vapor is formed from water in oil emulsion, which is the butter. This makes sure that the layers of pastry are pushed from each other. The water vapor is retained by the gluten network in the pastry.
For the pastry part 7 parts of flour, 4 parts of water and 1 part of soft fat are mixed. After that the dough is kneaded for 10 minutes in order that the gluten network is formed.
The fat part consists of a lightly salted crust butter. Crust butter is a solid butter with a flat melting curve. A flat melting curve means that the fat melts slowly by which it retains its solidity.
The quantity of the pastry has to be twice as large as the quantity of butter.
The amount of turns may vary, but the standard is three to five turns.
The turning can be executed automatically on a laminating line. By means of rollers the pastry is stretched. After the rollers the butter is put on the layer of pastry. Via a conveyor belt the pastry is exported from the rollers. After that it is brought to a lower conveyor belt. This lower belt shoots back under the conveyor belt. When the lower belt returns the pastry is folded in two. Such a system is called a sheeter (schietband). After the sheeter the product goes over a second conveyor belt, which is at right angles to the first conveyor belt. Because of this it is possible to make the puff pastry with a few sheeters.
Often products like sausages or apple mixture are put into the pastry. After that the filling is wrapped up with the pastry.
The punching of the form of the pastry leaves some leftovers which can be used in another pastry. It cannot be used for puff pastry because the layers of pastry and butter cannot be build anew.
temperature the butter melts and forms water vapor. The water vapor is the rising agent of the puff pastry; it disperses the layers of the pastry. After the rising the structure of the pastry is fixed. Finally the Maillard reaction gives the pastry a brown color. This is a chemical reaction between reducing sugars and proteins.
When there is sugar on the puff pastry, as with apple turnovers and cracknels, especially the caramelisation is responsible for the brown colour.