Undissolved particles in a liquid main phase cause turbidity when the refractive index of these particles is different to that of the main phase. Therefore these particles can be:
Solid (e.g. turbid apple juice or yeast cells in beer)
Liquid (emulsified oil droplets in water, e.g. milk)
Gas bubbles (e.g. undissolved CO2 in beverages)
Turbidimeters determine the... go to >> Turbidity
Here is a short summary of the principle of the potentiometric measurement of CO2 which this sensor and system is based on (Severinghaus). The CO2 sensor employs a gas permeable silicone membrane which is tightly stretched around a special engineered flat pH membrane. The CO2 from the sample or process diffuses through the membrane into or out the electrolyte where it equilibrates with HCO3-... go to >> Carbon dioxide
Conductivity is the ability of a solution to pass current. The current flowing is proportional to the number of ions present in the solution. Despite the fact that the measuring of conductivity is non-specific, the technique is widely used in analytical chemistry, especially in the characterization of water purity. Conductivity measurement is also used to determine the concentration of chemicals... go to >> Conductivity
PH Measurement in industry
In principle, pH is a measure of hydrogen ion activity. Its major use in industry is in the field of process control. Monitoring and controlling pH serves to ensure consistant product quality, to reduce downtime, corrosion and scaling in plant equipment, and to protect the environment by helping wastewater dischargers to meet regulatory limits.
range works than to keep the pH within a desired... go to >> PH Measurement in industry
What is Photometry?go to >> What is Photometry?