Rye bread is a regular bread type. It is being baked of dough from broken or grinded rye. It used to be eaten as daily bread, but nowadays wheat bread is eaten more because of the light structure. Rye bread contains a lot of fibres and iron.
(Dutch) Rye bread can be divided into two types:
- Frisian rye: made of broken rye, no yeast is used, sweetish taste
- Brabantine rye: made of grinded rye, yeast or leaven is used, sourish taste.
flour is sometimes added.
- In most types of bread meal or flour is used. A fine grinded form of wheat or rye. In Frisian rye bread broken rye grains are used. These grains have a diameter of approximately 1mm. The starch and protein are still in the grain. This means that the grains can not built a protein structure with the other grains.
- The large amount of water is needed for the liquid absorption of the rye grains.
- Salt is used as a taste intensifier.
- Lactic acid is used to give the bread the fresh, sourish taste.
- Old rye bread is the finished product from a previous charge. Because this bread is already baked, the starch from the grains has already stiffened. It is therefore cooked or soaked before it is added. This gives the dough certain cohesion. The old rye bread should be spread fine (grinded). In addition it should not be too dark, for this would give dark dots in the end product.
- Malt or syrup gives a sweeter taste and darker colour to the end product.
- Preservative extends the shelf life of the product. It slows down the growth of moulds and ferment.
- Flour gives the bread more cohesion. The starch from flour is fairly accessible and therfor stiffens easily. A moderate quality flour type is usually used, so no rye meal. This moderate quality flour gives a better cohesion.
temperature is now 50ºC. This rest time gives the grains more time to expand. The dough stiffens because of this and is easier to process.
A zoetpanne is sometimes used. This is a mixture of broken rye grains and water. It is placed in an oven for one night (at 60ºC). During this rest, the enzymes (amylasen) break down a part of the starch to dextrins and sugars. The dextrins stick and provide cohesion in the bread and make it a tender product as well. The sugars give the bread a sweeter taste.
baking process. The steam condenses on the cold dough and increases the heat transfer. Additionally the condensed steam postpones crust forming and colouring, because it keeps the crust ‘wet’ a little longer. Otherwise the outside of the bread would be coloured too much because of the long bake time. Burning of the crust would be possible too.
The long bake time is needed for the inner part of the dough to get the heat treatment as well. The heat transfer is slow because the dough is so compact and contains no air bubbles.
The dextrinating of the starch continues during the baking. This gives a sweeter taste to the bread. The bread gets a dark brown colour because of the Maillard reactions.
The temperature during the baking process is low (110ºC). This prevents the bread colouring too heavy and burning.
cooling process which also reduces the chance of contamination.
contamination during cutting.
packaging film. The bread often contains preservatives, but storage life is not long enough yet.
heating takes a lot longer.
The production process of both types are almost the same and comparable with the production process of wheaten bread.
Brabantine rye bread is a product containing a gluten network.
The colour is much lighter than the colour of Frisian rye bread.
- Sweet rye bread: 100 kg rye meal, 1 kg yeast, 1 kg salt and 50 kg water.
- Sour rye bread: 100 kg rye meal, 2.2 kg leaven (from 10 kg rye meal, 10 kg water and 0.200 kg yeast), 2 kg salt and 47 kg water.
The functions of the basic ingredients are mentioned in the part about Frisian rye bread.
The wheat meal gives a better gluten network, for rye itself contains just a small amount of gluten protein.
A brew is often applied when using a preservative because the preservative restrains the work of yeast. A brew is a mixture of 20 kg rye, 20 kg water and de entire amount of yeast. The brew is kept at 32ºC for 30 minutes. This activates the yeast and the preservative will then restrain the yeast less.
Because the production of leaven takes a lot of time and the quality can differ a lot, also pure cultures are used often nowadays. These are lactic acid bacteria cultures that are ready for use. Its taste is more constant and it saves a lot of time. Yeast is then also added to the dough.
carbondioxide production and the bread does not form a crust yet, because of the high humidity. If the bread would get a crust as effect of dehydration, this crust would tear during the rising. The rising takes 1-1.5 hours at a relative humidity of 85% and a temperature of 35ºC.
The process of shaping and rising can possibly be repeated. In that case the structure will become finer. The formed, large gas bubbles are split in multiple, smaller gas bubbles during the shaping. The small gas bubbles will grow and become large bubbles again during the rising.
The baking process takes 2-4 hours at a temperature of 200-220ºC. This baking temperature is considerable shorter than the baking time of the Frisian rye bread. Brabantine rye bread contains a relative large amount of gas bubbles, which speeds up the heat transport.
cutting the chance of contamination is big.