Cultivation of mushrooms
The cultivation and harvesting of most mushroom types is similar. The process description described below is focussed on the most common type, the white mushroom.
|Filling and covering|
The corn grains should be sterile. If they are not sterile other micro-organisms compete with the mushroom. This results in an impure and slow growth of the mushrooms.
Filling and coveringThe cultivator fills the cultivation cells with the through-grown compost. The cultivation cells have a hight of 10 centimetres. On top of each other there are 5 to 6 cultivation cells. The cultivator has several halls were multiple cultivation cells are putted. In every hall the growth of the mushrooms is in another stage. In this way the cultivator can harvest continuously and the activities can be split in time. Diseases are also limited this way.
The through-grown compost is covered with topsoil. The topsoil holds moisture and therefore provides a constant humidity of the through-grown compost.
fermentation. During the growth, the growth conditions are controlled precisely. Climate control computers, aerators and rainsystems keep the temperature and humidity at the optimum values.
It is important that the mushrooms do not get contaminated with other fungi. Therefore special hygienic measures like disinfection baths and special cloths are taken.
Harvesting can take place manually or mechanically:
- To get sound mushrooms the mushrooms can only be harvested manually. The sound mushrooms are very suitable for selling as fresh mushrooms. During harvesting the stalk at the foot is cutted off immediately. They are sorted on the basis of size and putted in the consumers packaging directly. Because mushrooms are very vulnerable they should be handled carefully. With manual harvesting there can be harvested 30 kg of mushrooms per man-hour.
- Mechanically harvested mushrooms are only used for industrial applications. The mushrooms are being treated and intended for jar or can or meant as frozen mushrooms. Due to the mechanical harvesting the mushrooms are damaged lightly and can not be used as fresh mushrooms anymore.
By mechanical harvesting large brushes are being transported over the cultivation cell. The brushes take the mushrooms with them. By means of a conveyor belt they are transported to one side of the cultivation cell. The mechanical harvested mushrooms should be processed immediately. An hour after harvesting they can get brown spots on the damaged parts. Automatic harvesting systems are available upto 1000 kg of mushrooms per hour.
Click for additional information about Cultivation