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Index page for: Natural Extracts Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Importance of Nature CureNaturopathyNatural ExtractsCO2 as an SCF SolventSCFE ProcessSCFE ApplicationsReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 1Figures 1.1 - 1.3FUNDAMENTALS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIAProcess Schemes and Parameters in SCFEThermodynamics of SCF StateVariability of Density with P and TAddition of Cosolvent to SCF SolventSolubility Behavior in SCF SolventSolubility Isotherms and Cross Over PhenomenaSolubility Isobars Pressure and Temperature EffectsSolvent Capacity and SelectivityCosolvent EffectsSCF Phase Equilibrium BehaviorLiquid-Fluid Phase EquilibriaSolid-Fluid Phase EquilibriaPolymer-Fluid Phase EquilibriaThermodynamic ModellingThe Equation of State ApproachSolid-Fluid Equilibrium CalculationsMixing RulesCS and GC MethodsSolubility Predictions of Solid from Pure Components PropertiesLiquid-Fluid Equilibrium Calculations Mixing RulesRegression of Binary Adjustable ParametersPrediction of Multicomponent Data from Binary Interaction ConstantsPrediction of Phase Boundaries Mixture Critical Point CalculationsMultiphase (L-L-V) CalculationsSolubility Predictions Using Solvent-Cluster Interaction ModelSolubility Calculations from Correlations Selectivity of Natural Molecules from Pure Component SolubilitiesThermophysical Properties of CO2 NomenclatureReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 2Figures 2.1 - 2.27 (b)FUNDAMENTAL TRANSPORT PROCESES IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTIONTransport Properties of SCFs ViscosityDiffusivityThermal ConductivityInterfacial TensionMass Transfer Behavior SCFE From Solid FeedMechanism of Transport from SolidsStages of Extraction from Different Natural MaterialsSCFF from Liquid FeedFractionation of Liquids by SFC Mass Transfer Modelling For SCFE from SolidsProcess ParametersMass Transfer CoefficientsEffect of Axial Dispersion and Convective FlowsShrinking Core Leaching ModelHeat Transfer in SCFsHeat Transfer CoefficientsEffects of Free Convective FlowHeat Transfer Coefficient for Two Phase FlowHeat Exchanger SpecificationsNomenclatureReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 3Figures 3.1(a) - 3.16FLAVOR AND FRAGRANCE EXTRACTSMarket DemandNatural Essential OilsMethods of Recovery of Natural Essential OilsSteam DistillationMacerationEnfleurageCold ExpressionExtraction with Volatile Organic SolventsChoice of SolventsPurification of Crude ExtractVacuum DistillationMolecular DistillationLiquid-Liquid FractionationSupercritical CO2 ExtractionCommercial AdvantageSC CO2 Extracted Floral FragranceJasmine FragranceRose FragranceBitter Orange Flower FragranceLavender Inflorescence FragranceMarigold FragranceSandalwood FragranceVetiver FragranceReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 4Figures 4.1 - 4.7(b)FRUIT EXTRACTSImportance of RecoveryCitrus Oil Recovery During Juice ExtractionFlavoring Components in FruitsStability and QualityCO2 Extraction ProcessesDeterpenation of Citrus Oil by SC CO2 Dealcoholation of Fruit Juice by SC CO2Enzyme Inactivation and Sterilization by +SC CO2ReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 5Figures 5.1 - 5.6SPICE EXTRACTSImportance of RecoveryClassification of SpicesTherapeutic Properties of SpicesSpice ConstituentsProduction of Spice ExtractsSC CO2 Extraction and FractionationCelery SeedsRed ChiliPaprikaGingerNutmegPepperVanillaCardamomFennel, Caraway and CorianderGarlicCinnamonMarket TrendsReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 6Figure 6.1HERBAL EXTRACTSImportance of RecoveryHerbal RemediesRecovery MethodsAntioxidative and Antimicrobial ConstituentsAnti-inflammatory ConstituentsAnti-Cancerous AlkaloidsAnti-Carcinogenic PolyphenolsMedicinal Constituents of Tea ExtractFat Regulating AgentTherapeutic Oils and Fatty AcidsReferencesNATURAL ANTIOXIDANTSImportance of RecoveryClassificationBotanicals with Antioxidative ActivityTocopherols as AntioxidantsRecovery by SC CO2Spice and Herbal Extracts as AntioxidantsRecovery by SC CO2Plant Leaf Extracts as AntioxidantsFlavonoids Recovery of FlavonoidsCarotenoids as AntioxidantsRecovery of ? Carotene by SC CO2Solubility of Antioxidants in SC CO2ReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 8Figures 8.1 - 8.7NATURAL FOOD COLORSCarotenoids as Food ColorsRecovery of Carotenoids by SC CO2GrassOrange PeelTurmericPaprikaRed ChiliCarrotMarigold FlowersAnnatto Other Natural ColorsAnthocyanins as Food ColorsClassification of AnthocyaninsRecovery of AnthocyaninsCommercial Anthocyanin-based Food ColorsBetacyaninsReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 9Figures 9.1 - 9.2PLANT AND ANIMAL LIPIDSImportance of RecoveryRecovery MethodsSeparation of FFA from Vegetable Oil by SC CO2Fractionation of PUFA from Animal LipidsRefining and Deodorisation of Vegetable OilFractionation of GlyceridesExtraction of Oil from Oil Bearing MaterialsSunflower OilCorn Germ OilSoybean OilOlive Husk OilGrape Seed OilAnimal LipidsDeoiling of Lecithin by SC CO2Soya PhospholipidsOat LecithinCanola LecithinPC from Deoiled CottonseedPC from Egg YolkDilipidation and Decholesterification of FoodButterEgg Yolk PowderFish and Meat MusclesReferencesFigure Captions - Chapter 10Figures 10.1 - 10.12NATURAL PESTICIDESImportance of RecoveryBioactivity of NeemNeem Based PesticidesAzadirachtin-based FormulationsCommercial ProductionRecovery of Azadirachtin from Neem KernelConventional ProcessesSupercritical CO2 ExtractionPyrethrum Based PesticidesRecovery of PyrethrinsNicotine Based PesticidesReovery of Nicotine by SC CO2References APPENDICES Thermophysical Properties of Carbon DioxideDefinitions of Fatty Acids and Their Compositions in Various OilsSome Statistics on Major Vegetable Oils and OilseedsINDEX