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Index page for: The Soft Drinks Companion: A Technical Handbook for the Beverage Industry

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION TO SOFT DRINKSSome StatisticsWhat is a Soft Drink?Why Soft Drinks?Benefits of Soft DrinksBRIX: THE BASICSThe Brix ConceptDensityDensity versus Specific GravityBrix/Density TablesWhy is Brix Used?How is Brix Measured?TASTE TESTING: THEORY AND TECHNIQUEThe Sense of TasteWhy Test for Taste?When Do We Do Taste Tests?Types of Taste TestsTaste Testing Technique and RulesFOOD LAWS: GENERAL ISSUESGeneral OverviewWhat are Food Laws?South African Food LawsWhy are Food Laws included in this Technical Handbook?Acts and Regulations of Food LawsSoft Drinks LegislationWhat is the Purpose of Food Laws?How are Food Laws Made?Enforcement of Food LawsGeneral Food Laws Regulations Applicable to Soft DrinksEMULSIONS: THE CLOUDY DRINKSCloudy DrinksEmulsions as Clouding AgentsFlavour EmulsionsEmulsion TechnologyStokes' LawOil DensityWeighting AgentsOil Droplet Size and DistributionStabilizersWater and Other Emulsion IngredientsHomogenizationTurbidity StrengthBeverage EmulsionsQuality Control of Beverage EmulsionsWATER TREATMENT: THE KEY PROCESSWhy is Water Treatment Necessary?Raw Water Adverse Quality FactorsA Short DigressionWater Treatment TechnologyThe Multiple Barrier ConceptMultiple Barrier Water TreatmentEnhanced FiltrationCoagulation/FlocculationMembrane FiltrationAlkalinity ReductionDisinfectionChlorinationOzonationUltraviolet IrradiationActivated Carbon PurificationPolishing FiltrationBRIX: SUGAR INVERSIONSugar Chemistry TerminologyWhat is Sugar Inversion?Why is it Called Sugar Inversion?Sugar Inversion and Soft Drinks TechnologyInversion in Final SyrupsFresh Brix and Inverted BrixWhat is the Impact of Inversion in Soft Drinks Technology?How is Inverted Brix Converted into Fresh Brix?How is the Fresh Brix of a Sucrose-Sweetened Beverage Determined?FRUIT JUICES: A SPECIAL TECHNOLOGYSingle Strength JuiceBrix Acidity CorrectionThe Brix/Acid RatioCalculating the Percentage of Juice in a BeverageOther Juice-related IssuesOther Juice-related IssuesFOOD LAWS: LABELING THE PACKAGEIngredients ListSoft Drinks in Vending MachinesThe Word NaturalClaims on Soft Drinks LabelsNutrition informationLabeling of Products for ExportSYRUP MAKING: THE HEART OF THE PROCESSThe Syrup Proportioning SystemWhy is Syrup Proportioning Used?A Little Bit of HistoryAdvantages of the Syrup-making SystemSyrup-making TechniqueSight-glass Versus DipstickBulk RTD PreparationA Tale of Syrup TailsMICROBIOLOGY: ALL ABOUT THE BUGSA Matter of TerminologyThe Microbiologist in the Soft Drinks IndustryWhat is Micro All About?General Characteristics of MicroorganismsMicrobiological TestingFundamentals of Micro Testing PracticesThe Membrane Filtration MethodMicrobiological SpecificationsMicro Testing of Factory EquipmentPreservativesSYRUP SHRINKAGE: SPLITTING HAIRS?What is Syrup Shrinkage?Syrup Shrinkage ExplanationWhat is the Impact of Syrup Shrinkage?CARBONATION: PUTTING IN THE FIZZA Little Bit Of HistoryCarbon Dioxide (CO2)Gas VolumesTesting for Gas VolumesCarbonating the BeverageCO2 as an Ingredient Stock ItemSome Other Items Related to CarbonationUNITIZATION: A UNIQUE INGREDIENTS SYSTEMNon-unitized SystemsThe Beverage Base UnitPreparation of UnitsThe FULL UNIT ConceptBenefits and Advantages of UnitizationOutsourcing the Unitization OperationGeneral Considerations for Converting to a Unitization SystemFLAVOURS: THE MAGICAL INGREDIENTSWhat are Flavours?Flavours and Soft DrinksHow Are Flavours Made?Flavour HousesFlavour CostsHow is a Soft Drink Flavour Sourced?The Magic and Mystery in FlavoursFORMULATIONS: A SPREADSHEET DESIGN TEMPLATEExercise Scenario DetailsThe Exercise, Step by StepMICROBIOLOGY: THE BIOFILM CONCEPTWhat is a Biofilm?How are Biofilms Formed?Special Characteristics of BiofilmsBiofilms in the Soft Drinks industryPreventing Biofilms in the Soft Drink Operation QUALITY: THE KEY TO PERFORMANCEWhat is Quality?Quality ManagementBuilding Quality into the Soft DrinkQuality Building SupportQuality Rating SystemsAPPENDIX 1. Brix/Density Conversion Tables APPENDIX 2. Temperature Correction Tables for Refractometer Brix ReadingsAPPENDIX 3. Significance Tables for Two-Sample Preference Taste TestAPPENDIX 4. Significance Tables for Triangular Taste TestAPPENDIX 5. Acidity Correction Tables for Refractometric Brix ReadingsAPPENDIX 6. Microsoft Excel Template for Final Beverage Brix CalculationAPPENDIX 7. Glossary of Technical and General Terms Used in This Handbook