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Index page for: Fundamental Food Microbiology, Fourth Edition

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION TO MICROBES IN FOODS History and Development of Food Microbiology Introduction Discovery of Microorganisms Where are they Coming From? What are their Functions? Development of Early Food Microbiology (Before A.D. 1900) Food Microbiology: Current StatusFood Microbiology and Food Microbiologists Characteristics of Predominant Microorganisms in Food Introduction Classification of MicroorganismsNomenclature Morphology and Structure of Microorganisms in Foods Important Microorganisms in FoodImportant Viruses Important Bacterial Genera Important Bacterial Groups in Foods Sources of Microorganisms in FoodsIntroduction Predominant Microorganisms in Different Sources Normal Microbiological Quality of Foods and Its Significance Introduction Raw and Ready-to-eat Meat Products Raw and Pasteurized Milk Shell Egg and Liquid Egg Fish and Shellfish Vegetables, Fruits, and NutsCereal, Starches, and Gums Canned FoodsSugars and Confectioneries Soft Drinks, Fruit and Vegetable Drinks, Juices, and Bottled Water Mayonnaise and Salad Dressings Spices and Condiments MICROBIAL FOODBORNE DISEASES Microbial Growth Characteristics Introduction Microbial Reproduction or Growth Nature of Microbial Growth in Food Factors Influencing Microbial Growth in Food Introduction Intrinsic Factors or Food Environment Extrinsic Factors Microbial Metabolism of Food ComponentsIntroduction Respiration and Fermentation during GrowthMetabolism of Food Carbohydrates Degradation of Polysaccharides Microbial Sporulation and GerminationIntroduction Mold Spores Yeast Spores Bacterial Spores Importance of Spores in Food BENEFICIAL USES OF MICROORGANISMS IN FOOD Microbial Stress Response in the Food EnvironmentIntroduction Stress Adaptation Sublethal Stress and InjuryViable-but-Nonculturable Proponent Views Microorganisms Used in Food Fermentation Introduction Microbiology of Fermented Foods Lactic Starter Cultures Other Starter Cultures Yeasts and Molds Biochemistry of Some Beneficial TraitsIntroduction Mechanisms of Transport of Nutrients Transport and Metabolism of Carbohydrates Transport and Metabolism of Proteinaceous Compounds and Amino Acids Transport and Metabolism of Lipid Compounds Genetics of Some Beneficial Traits Introduction Plasmids and Plasmid-Linked Traits in Starter-Culture Bacteria Gene Transfer Methods in Starter-Culture Bacteria Gene Cloning Genome Mapping and Sequencing Starter Cultures and BacteriophagesIntroduction History Concentrated Cultures Starter-Culture Problems Yeast and Mold Cultures Microbiology of Fermented Food Introduction General Method of ProductionFermented Dairy Products Fermented Meat Products Fermented Vegetable Products Intestinal Beneficial Bacteria Introduction Microbiology of the Human GI Tract Important Characteristics of Beneficial BacteriaBeneficial Effects of Probiotics Some Aspects to Consider Current Developments Food Biopreservatives of Microbial Origin Introduction Viable Cells of Lactic Acid Bacteria as Preservatives Organic Acids, Diacetyl, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Reuterine as Food Preservatives Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria as Food PreservativesYeast Metabolites as Preservatives Food Ingredients and Enzymes of Microbial OriginIntroduction Microbial Proteins and Food AdditivesMicrobial enzymes in Food processing MICROBIAL FOOD SPOILAGE Important Factors in Microbial Food SpoilageIntroduction Sequence of Events Significance of Microorganisms Some Important Food Spoilage Bacteria Significance of Foods Spoilage of Specific Food Groups Introduction Fresh and Ready-To-Eat Meat Products Eggs and Egg Products Fish, Crustaceans, and MollusksMilk and Milk Products Vegetables and Fruits Soft Drinks, Fruit Juices and Preserves, and Vegetable Juices Cereals and their Products Liquid Sweeteners and Confectioneries Mayonnaise, Salad Dressings, and Condiments Fermented Foods Canned FoodsNew Food Spoilage Bacteria in Refrigerated Foods Microorganisms that Grow in Refrigerated Foods (Psychotrophs) Popularity of Refrigerated Foods Microbiological ProblemsIncidence of Spoilage of Vacuum-Packaged Refrigerated Food Food Spoilage by Microbial Enzymes Introduction Characteristics of Heat-Stable Enzymes of Psychotrophic Bacteria Spoilage of Foods with Heat-Stable Microbial EnzymesSpoilage of Foods by Microbial Enzymes at Low Temperature Indicators of Microbial Food Spoilage Introduction Microbiological CriteriaChemical Criteria Assay of Heat-Stable Enzymes MICROBIAL FOODBORNE DISEASESImportant Facts in Foodborne Diseases Introduction Human Gastrointestinal Disorder Epidemiological Aspects Current Trends Foodborne Intoxications Introduction Staphylococcal IntoxicationBotulism Mycotoxicosis Foodborne Infections Introduction Salmonellosis by Salmonella enterica Listeriosis by Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenic Escherichia coli Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery) by Shigella sppCampylobacteriosis by Campylobacter sppYersiniosis byYersinia enterocolitica Gastroenteritis by Vibrio sppEnteric Viruses Other Foodborne Infections Foodborne Toxicoinfections Introduction Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis Cholera Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis Opportunistic Pathogens, Parasites, and Algal Toxins Introduction Opportunistic Pathogens Biogenic Amines Algal Toxins Parasites New and Emerging Foodborne Pathogens Introduction Associated Factors Miscellaneous Factors Other Emerging Foodborne Pathogens of Concern Indicators of Bacterial PathogensIntroduction Criteria for Ideal Indicators Coliform GroupEnterobacteriaceae GroupEnterococcus Group CONTROL OF MICROORGANISMS IN FOODSControl of Access (Cleaning and Sanitation) Introduction Objectives of Sanitation Factors to Consider Control by Physical Removal Control by HeatIntroduction Objectives Mechanism of Thermal Inactivation Influencing Factors Nature of FoodMathematical Expressions Methods Control by Low Temperature Introduction Objectives Mechanisms of Cold Induced Inactivation Influencing Factors Methods Control by Reduced Water Activity Introduction Objectives Mechanism of ActionInfluencing Factors Nature of Microorganisms Methods Control by Low pH and Organic AcidsIntroduction Objectives Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Action Influencing Factors Acids Used Control by Modified Atmosphere (or Reducing O-R Potential)Introduction Objectives Mechanism of Action Influencing Factors Methods Control by Antimicrobial Preservatives Introduction Objectives Influencing Factors Examples of Antimicrobial Preservatives H2O2 Control by Irradiation Introduction Objectives Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Action Influencing Factors Methods Control by Novel Processing Technologies Introduction Summary of Processing MethodsPulsed Electric Field Hydrostatic Pressure Processing Control by a Combination of Methods (Hurdle Concept) Introduction Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Action Current StatusMICROBIAL DETECTION AND FOOD SAFETY Conventional and Biosensor Based Detection Methods for Microorganisms in Food and Food Environment Introduction Methods Used Standard and Recommended Methods Sampling for Microbial Analysis Quantitative Methods for Microbial Enumeration in Foods Qualitative Methods to Isolate Microorganisms in Foods Test for Bacterial Toxins in Foods Rapid Methods and Automation Biosensors for Pathogen Detection Appendix A: Microbial Attachment to Food and Equipment Surfaces Importance Mechanisms of Attachment Influencing Factors Control Measures Appendix B: Predictive Modeling of Microbial Growth in Food Importance Traditional Methods Predictive Microbiology Appendix C: Regulatory Agencies Monitoring Microbiological Safety of Foods in the United States Food Safety Regulations The Agencies Appendix D: Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointsIntroduction HACCP Principle of the NACMCF Index