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Index page for: Handbook of Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention

Table of Contents EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE HEALTH AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PEDIATRIC OBESITY, A.E. FieldAbstract Introduction: The Scope of the Problem Consequences of Obesity in Childhood and AdolescenceLong-Term Health Consequences of Pediatric Obesity Economic Costs of Pediatric ObesityConclusion and SummaryReferences GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT, S.S. SunGrowth Measurement and AssessmentPatterns of Growth Mathematical Models for Describing Patterns of GrowthSignificance of Growth and Maturation References INFLUENCE OF ETHNICITY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, D. Gallagher, J.R. Fern?ndez, P.B Higgins, and Q. HeIntroduction Health Significance of Pediatric Obesity Fatness/Adiposity Fat-Free MassFat/Adipose Tissue Distribution Etiology of Ethnic Differences in Body CompositionImplications of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Body Composition on Obesity ConclusionReferences AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON PEDIATRIC OBESITY, B.M. Popkin and P. Gordon-LarsenIntroduction Global Obesity Dietary Changes across the Globe Conclusions References CRITICAL PERIODS FOR ABNORMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, S.R. DanielsIntroduction Determinants of Critical Periods Potential Critical Periods ConclusionReferences GENETICS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY, N.F. Butte, C.A. Bacino, S.A. Cole, and A.G. ComuzzieIntroduction Intrauterine Critical Period for the Development of Obesity Postnatal Critical Periods for the Development of ObesityGenetic Epidemiology: Twin, Siblings, Nuclear Families, Extended Pedigree Studies Monogenic Obesity Syndromic Obesity Genomewide Scans of Obesity in Children Candidate Gene Studies in Children ConclusionReferences ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND BODY COMPOSITION TECHNIQUES, A. Pietrobelli and D.A. FieldsIntroduction Body Composition Measurement of Energy Expenditure Measurement of Physical ActivityReferences REGULATION OF BODY WEIGHT: ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, M.S. Treuth and L. BandiniIntroductionEnergy Balance Energy RequirementsEnergy ExpenditureEnergy Expenditure in Children with Developmental DisabilitiesPhysical Activity Future DirectionsSummary References ENDOCRINE DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH PEDIATRIC OBESITY, C. Ning and J.A. YanovskiIntroductionEndocrine Disorders Associated with Pediatric ObesityGenetic Syndromes Presenting As Endocrine Disorders That Are Associated with Obesity Summary Acknowledgments ReferencesPHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ADIPOSITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, P. Barbeau, B. Gutin, and M. SothernIntroductionDeterminants of Physical Activity in YouthsPhysical Activity, Physical Fitness, Adiposity, and HealthDirections for Future ResearchSummary ReferencesPUBERTY, INSULIN RESISTANCE, AND TYPE 2 DIABETES, B.A. Gower and S. CaprioOverview Pubertal Insulin ResistanceEpidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes in Children and AdolescentsContribution of Obesity to Insulin Resistance Contribution of Race and Ethnicity to Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Concluding RemarksReferences METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, M.L. CruzIntroductionPrevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Children and Adolescents Etiology of the Metabolic Syndrome in ChildhoodImpact of the Metabolic Syndrome on Disease Outcomes in Childhood Strategies for Screening and Treatment, of the Metabolic Syndrome in Children and AdolescentsStrategies for Treatment of the Metabolic SyndromeConclusions Acknowledgments References BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF FOOD INTAKE: IMPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL TARGETS FOR OVERWEIGHT PREVENTION, T.V.E. Kral, M. Dolan, J. Kerns, and M.S. FaithIntroduction Modifying Eating Behavior for Overweight Prevention: Can Small Changes Help Achieve Energy Balance? Effects of Food Presentation StrategiesEffects of Food Properties Effects of Familial Feeding Styles and Meal PatternsRefined Eating Traits and Their Potential Role in the Prevention of OverweightMeasurement Considerations and RecommendationsConclusionReferences BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE, D. Spruijt-Metz and B.E. SaelensOverview and Introduction Recommendations for Children's Physical Activity Overall Prevalence and General EpidemiologyPromoting Physical Activity in Pediatric Populations Elements of Behavioral Theory: Correlates, Mediators, and Moderators The Imperative of TheoryFour Theories for Promoting Physical Activity in Pediatric Populations Hot Topics in Physical Activity Research: Individual Differences and Correlates of Physical ActivityConclusionReferences INFLUENCE OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, P. Gordon-Larsen and K.D. ReynoldsIntroduction Measuring the Built Environment Theoretical Framework Settings and Key Examples Future ResearchReferences COMMUNITY-LEVEL INFLUENCES AND INTERVENTIONS FOR PEDIATRIC OBESITY, L.A. Lytle and K. SchmitzOverview of ChapterDefining CommunityInfluence of Community as Examined with an Ecological Approach Community Interventions to Promote Physical Activity and Positively Affect Dietary Behavior in YouthSummary and Future DirectionsReferences OBESITY PREVENTION IN SCHOOLS, S.A. French and M. StoryIntroduction Obesity Prevention InterventionsSchool-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health: CATCHEnvironmental Interventions: Food Pricing, Availability, and Promotion Environmental Interventions for Physical Activity Emerging Policy Initiatives for School-Based Obesity Prevention Research Recommendations References DIETARY APPROACHES FOR OBESITY TREATMENT AND PREVENTION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, C.B Ebbeling and D.S LudwigIntroduction Secular Trends in Children's DietsCurrent Dietary Approaches Reduced Glycemic Load DietConclusionsReferencesBREAST-FEEDING AND OVERWEIGHT, E.M. Taveras and M.W. GillmanIntroduction Prevalence of Breast-Feeding Initiation, Exclusivity, and Duration in the United States Association of Breast-feeding with Overweight in Children and Adolescents Potential Mechanisms Clinical and Public Health Implications Acknowledgments References Index