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Index page for: Managing allergens in food

Table of Contents PART 1: WHAT ARE FOOD ALLERGENS AND FOOD ALLERGIES?FOOD ALLERGY: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT, M. Fernandez-Rivas and B. Ballmer-WeberIntroductionOffending FoodsClinical ManifestationsClinical Diagnosis of Food AllergyManagement of Food AllergyKey Issues in Diagnosis and ManagementFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesTHE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO FOOD, C. Nicletti and K. IvoryIntroductionThe Physiological Immune ResponseTypes of Allergic ReactionsOral ToleranceThe Role of the Gut Immune System in Food Allergic ReactionsCrossing the BarrierAltered Immunoregulation in AllergyConclusionsReferencesIMPACT OF FOOD ALLERGIES ON QUALITY OF LIFE, J. O'B Hourihane, B.M.J. de Blok, and A.E.J. DuboisIntroductionApproaches to Study Quality of LifeCurrent Knowledge Regarding Food Allergy and Quality of LifeFuture TrendsReferencesALLERGENS IN FOOD, H. Breiteneder, J.A. Jenkins, and E.N.C. MillsIntroductionThe Major Plant and Animal Food Allegen Protein FamiliesCross-Reactivity between Protein FamiliesProtein Structure and Allergenic Potential of ProteinsStructural Approaches to Reducing Allergenic Potential FoodsConclusionsReferencesCROSS-REACTIVITY OF PLANT ALLERGENS, R. de ReesIntroductionAnalysing Cross-ReactivityApplications: Anticipating Risks from Cross ReactivityFuture TrendsReferencesINTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND ALLERGIC RESPONSE TO FOOD, C.A. Edwards, S. Khanna, S. Amari, J. Dore, A. Gil, R. Adam, and E. NorrinIntroductionInfection and AllergyIntestinal Microbiota in Allergic InfantsModifying the Gut Microbiota in Infants to Prevent the Development of Allergenicity and Symptoms of AllergyFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesPART 2: ALLERGENS IN FOODS - FROM RAW TO PROCESSED FOODSTHE EFFECTS OF FOOD PROCESSING ON ALLERGENS, E.N.C. Mills, A.I. Sancho, J. Moreno, and H. KostyraIntroductionEffects of Food Processing on Allergen Structure and Interactions between Food ComponentsProcessing - Induced Covalent Modification of ProteinsFood Processing, the Matrix, and Allergenic PotentialReferencesIDENTIFYING FRUIT, NUT, AND VEGETABLE CULTIVARS WITH LOW ALLERGENIC LEVELS AND EFFECTS OF POST-HARVEST TREATMENTS, K. Hoffman-Sommergruber, A.I. Sancho, and L.J.W. GilissenIntroductionApple as a ModelTechniques for Detecting and Measuring Allergen LevelsIdentification of Cultivars Low in AllergenicityPost-Harvest Treatments and Allergen LevelsFuture TrendsReferencesDEVELOPING ALLERGEN-FREE FOODS BY GENETIC MANIPULATION, P.R. Shewry and H.D. JonesIntroduction Manipulation of Gene Expression in Crop PlantsThe Application of GM Technology to Allergen RemovalWhy has GM Technology not been Adapted for Commercial Production?ReferencesREDUCING ALLERGENS IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS, L. Schutte and A. PaschkeCow's Mild ProteinsFactors Affecting Cow's Milk AllergenicityMilk ProductsFuture TrendsReferencesREDUCING ALLERGENS IN EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS, S. Gremmel and A. PaschkeEgg ProteinsEgg WhiteEgg YolkBird-Egg SyndromeCross ReactivityFactors Affecting AllergenicityConclusionsReferencesMINIMAL PROCESSING AND THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES IN FOOD, H. WichersIntroductionExamples of the Impact of Traditional Processing on AllergenicityOptions for Novel Processing Technology to Reduce AllergenicityThe Need for Standardization of an Assessment System to Evaluate Processing EffectsConclusionsReferencesPART 3: ASSESSING ALLERGENIC RISKS AND PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGENS IN FOODINTEGRATIVE APPROACHES TO ASSESSING THE ALLERGENICITY IN FOODS, J.M. Wal and M. LovikIntroductionAllergenic Foods vs Allergens in FoodsEffects of Processing and Digestion on the Structure of the Allergens and on the AllergenicityFactors Influencing the Development of Allergic ReactionsMeasure of Allergenicity (In Vitro and In Vivo Tests)Assessing Individual ThresholdsPost Market Monitoring as an Additional Step to Increase the Evidence of Non-AllergenicityConclusionsReferencesDETECTING ALLERGENS IN FOODS, S. Baumgartner, R. Krska, and E. WelzigIntroductionMethods for Analysing Allergenic ProteinsMethods for Detecting Food AllergensDeveloping New Rapid Tests: Dipsticks and BiosensorsFuture TrendsReferencesPRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ALLERGENIC RISK ASSESSMENT OF PROTEINS, L.K. Poulson and C. Bindslev-JensenIntroductionQualitative Considerations-Should the Protein in Question Be Considered as an Allergen?Quantitative Considerations - Is the Protein in Question Present in Concentrations that May Elicit Symptoms in Sensitized People?Case Studies Relating to Fish AllergyTrends in Risk EvaluationReferencesALLERGEN MANAGEMENT IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY, R. CrevelIntroductionPrinciples ObjectivesIssues Associated with Allergen ManagementApplicationFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesRISK COMMUNICATION ISSUES IN FOOD ALLERGY, L. Frewer and S. PfaffIntroductionEffective Communication About Food AllergyRisk Communication-An OverviewCommunication with Food Allergic PatientsCommunication with the Population in GeneralCommunication with Health ProfessionalsCommunication with Food AuthoritiesCommunication with Food RetailersCommunication with Food ManufacturersConclusionsFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesCONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANIPULATING ALLERGENS IN FOOD, S. MilesIntroductionKey Factors Determining Consumer Acceptance of New TechnologiesStrategies to Improve Acceptance of New Technologies to Manipulate Allergens in FoodFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferences