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Index page for: Modifying Bitterness: Mechanism, Ingredients, and Applications

Table of Contents All chapters end with a section of references to the international literature on the chapter topic. Preface IntroductionSection I. Mechanism, Ingredients, Applications Recent Overview of the Mechanism of Bitter Taste, Glenn Roy o Transduction and Perception o Rats and Mice o Gerbils o Bovine o Rabbit o Frog o Primates and HumansGeneral Correlation between Models of Sweetness and Bitterness Perception, Glenn Roy o Theoretical Studies o Common Similarities, Experimental Data o Sensory Measurements o Case Studies The Evolution of in vitro Taste Sensors, Glenn RoyNewer Chemical Identification of Bitter Principles and Their Sources, Glenn Royo Health Benefits o Bitter as Deterrent o Bitter Principles and Sources o Miscellaneous Bitter Principles and Sources General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Foods and Beverages, Glenn Roy o Ingredient Approaches o Process Approaches o Inclusion Complexes, Chelating Agents, Polysaccharides and Ion-Exchange Membranes o Chemical Modifications of Bitter Substrates o Specific Applications of Bitterness Inhibition and ReductionSection II. A Symposium Interactions between Sweet and Bitter Tastes, D. Eric Walters o Introduction o Experimental Observations o Mechanistic Implications o Practical Implications o ConclusionFactors Affecting the Perception of Bitterness: A Review, J. H. Thorngate III o Introduction o Bitter Taste o Receptor Events o Innervation and Coding o Bitterness Measurement o Scalar Studies o Temporal Studies o Factors Affecting Bitterness Perception: Compound Effects o Taste Interactions o Medium of Presentation o Viscosity o Temperature o Oral Chemical Irritants o Ethanol o Mode of Presentation o Taste Modifiers o Prop Status o Salivary Status o Age o ConclusionsBitterness Perception across the Life Span, Claire Murphy and Jill Razini o Taste Threshold o Suprathreshold Intensity o Weber Ratios o Chemosensory Preference o ConclusionSuppression of Bitterness by Sodium: Implications for Flavor Enhancement, P. A. S. Breslin and G. K. Beauchamp o Introduction o General Methods o Results o Discussion o Summary Development of a Low-Sodium Salt: A Model for Bitterness Inhibition, Robert J. Kurtz and William D. FullerThe Use of Exopeptidases in Bitter Taste Modification, Graham Bruce and Denise Pawletto Introduction o The Nature of Bitterness o Enzyme Selection o Peptidases and Debittering o Use of Peptidases to Debitter Protein Hydrolyzates o Use of Peptidases to Prevent Bitterness in Cheese o SummarySpecific Inhibitor for Bitter Taste, Yoshihisa Katsuragi and Kenzo Kurihara o Introduction o Inhibition of Frog Taste Nerve Responses to Bitter Substances by the Lipoprotein o High Adsorption Ability of Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoproteins to Frog Tongue Surface and Hydrophobic Model Membranes o Selective Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoprotein o Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid o Summary and Concluding RemarksSection III. Applications in Oral PharmaceuticalsGeneral Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Oral Pharmaceuticals, Glenn Roy o Introduction o Sweeteners, Flavors and Amino Acids o Lipids o Lecithin-Like Substances o Surfactants o Coatings and Complexes with Carbohydrates, Resins, Proteins and Zeolites o Carbohydrates o Proteins o Inclusion Complexes o Resins o Zeolites o Salt Preparation o Functional Group Alteration Cautions and Prospects in Taste-Masking Formulations, Glenn Royo Applications That Need Commercialization of New Technologies and Additives Index