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Index page for: Dairy Processing: Improving Quality

Table of Contents Introduction DAIRY PRODUCT SAFETY AND QUALITY The Major Constituents of Milk P.F. Fox, University College Cork, Ireland IntroductionLactoseLipidsProteinsMinor ProteinsSaltsReferencesInfluences on Raw Milk Quality M. Boland, Fonterra Research Centre, New Zealand IntroductionBreed, Genetics and Milk QualityCow Diet and Milk QualityOther Aspects of Animal Husbandry and Milk QualityFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceAcknowledgementsReferencesGood Hygienic Practice in Milk Processing M.C. te Giffel, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands IntroductionThe Principal HazardsGood Hygienic PracticeFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceBibliographyImprovements in the Pasteurisation and Sterilisation of Milk M. Lewis, The University of Reading, UK IntroductionKinetic Parameters in Heat InactivationThermization and TyndallisationPasteurisationFactors Affecting the Effectiveness of PasteurisationExtended Shelf-Life MilksSterilisationUltra-high temperature (UHT) SterilisationAseptic Packaging and StorageReferencesModelling the Effectiveness of Pasteurisation R McKellar, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Introduction: the Role of Predictive ModellingThe Development of Thermal ModelsKey Steps in Model DevelopmentModels for Key Enzymes and PathogensModelling and Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment and PasteurisationFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesFlavour Generation in Dairy Products A.E.M. Boelrijk, C. de Jong and G. Smit, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands IntroductionRaw and Heat-Treated MilkYoghurt and ButtermilkConclusion and Future TrendsAcknowledgementsReferencesControlling the Texture of Dairy Products: The Case of Yoghurt D Jaros and H Rohm, Dresden University of Technology, Germany IntroductionThe Manufacture of YoghurtFactors Affecting Yoghurt TextureMeasuring the Rheological and Textural Properties of YoghurtFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesFactors Affecting the Shelf-Life of Milk and Milk Products D. Muir and J. Banks, Hannah Research Institute, UK IntroductionChemical Composition and Principal Reactions of Milk Bacteria in Milk and Related Enzyme ActivityRaw Milk EnzymesControl of the Quality of Short Shelf-Life ProductsYoghurt and Fermented MilkFactors Affecting the Stability of Long-Shelf-Life Products Control of the Stability of Long-Life Milk ProductsSummaryAcknowledgementBibliographyTesting the Authenticity of Milk and Milk Products F. Ulberth, University of Agricultural Sciences, Austria IntroductionDetecting and Quantifying Foreign FatsDetecting Milk of Different SpeciesDetection of Non-Milk Proteins, Watering of Milk and Alteration of the Casein/Whey Protein Ratio Measuring Heat LoadIdentifying Geographical OriginConclusionsReferencesFunctional Dairy Products M Saxelin, R Korpela and A Mayra-Makinen, Valio Ltd, Finland IntroductionComposition of MilkFermented Milk ProductsWhat Do We Mean by Functional Dairy Products? Examples of Functional Dairy Products: Gastrointestinal Health and General Well-Being Examples of Functional Dairy Products:Cardiovascular HealthExamples of Functional Dairy Products: Osteoporosis and Other Conditions Future TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesDeveloping and Approving Health Claims for Functional Dairy Products J. Snel and R. van der Meer, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands IntroductionThe Body's Defence MechanismsIn vitro StudiesAnimal StudiesHuman StudiesMaking Health ClaimsFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesNEW TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE QUALITY On-Line Measurement of Product Quality in Dairy Processing G Ellen and A Tudos, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands IntroductionOn-Line Measurement of Physical ParametersMeasuring Product CompositionOn-Line Microbiological TestingMonitoring Fouling and Cleaning-in-PlaceFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesRapid On-Line Instrumentation to Ensure the Safety of Milk A Amine, Universite Hassan II-Mahammedia, MoroccoL Micheli, D Moscone and G Palleschi, University di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Italy IntroductionMonitoring Contamination During Milking: Faecal Contamination and MycotoxinsMeasuring the Effectiveness of Heat TreatmentFuture TrendsReferencesHigh-Pressure Processing to Improve Dairy Product Quality W Messens, Agricultural Research Centre - Ghent, Belgium J van Camp and K Dewettinck, Ghent University, Belgium Introduction: High Pressure Principles and TechnologiesThe Effects of High Pressure on Nutritional and Other Qualities in MilkThe Effects of High Pressure on Bacteria and EnzymesThe Effects of High Pressure on Milk ProteinsEffects on Other Properties of Milk The Effects on Cheese and Yoghurt-Making Properties of MilkHigh-Pressure Treatment of CheeseFuture TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesOptimising Product Quality and Process Control for Powdered Dairy Products E. Verdurmen and P. de Jong, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands Introduction: Evapouration and Drying ProcessesQuality Criteria for Dairy-Based PowdersModelling QualityProcess and Product ControlEnsuring Process SafetySources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesSeparation Technologies to Produce Dairy Ingredients G. Bargeman, Akzo Nobel Chemicals bv, The Netherlands IntroductionSeparation TechnologiesIsolation of IngredientsDevelopments in Separation TechnologySources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesThe Use of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide to Extend the Shelf-Life of Dairy Products C Loss and J Hotchkiss, Cornell University, USA Introduction: Factors Limiting the Shelf-Life of Dairy ProductsThe Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Bacterial GrowthEffects of Carbon Dioxide on Raw Milk QualityEffects of Carbon Dioxide on Dairy Product QualityBacteriocidal and Sporicidal Effects of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide during Thermal ProcessingReferencesCHEESE MANUFACTURE Acceleration of Cheese Ripening V Upadhyay and P McSweeney, University College Cork, Ireland Introduction Accelerating Cheese Ripening: Elevated TemperatureAddition of Exogenous Enzymes or Attenuated Starters Use of Adjunct CulturesGenetic Modification of Starter BacteriaHigh Pressure TechnologyEnzyme Modified Cheeses as FlavouringsFuture TrendsAcknowledgement Sources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesNon-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria (NSLAB) and Cheese Quality T Beresford, Dairy Products Research Centre, Ireland IntroductionBacteria Comprising the NSLAB ComplexNSLAB in Different Cheese VarietiesThe Source of NSLAB in CheeseThe Growth of NSLAB in CheeseThe Influence of NSLAB on Cheese QualitySelection of NSLAB Adjuncts for Quality Improvement of Cheese ConclusionsReferencesThe Production of Smear Cheeses W. Bockelman, BafM, Germany Introduction: Smear-Ripened Cheese VarietiesProduction and RipeningDeveloping Ripening CulturesConclusions and Future TrendsSources of Further Information and AdviceReferencesFlavour formation in Cheese W. Engels, J. van Hylckama Vlieg and G. Smit, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands IntroductionAmino Acid ConversionAmino Acid CatabolismMethionine CatabolismBranched-Chain and Aromatic Amino Acid Conversion Conversion of Other Amino AcidsNatural Biodiversity and Tailor-Made Starter CulturesFuture TrendsReferencesAPPENDIXImproving the Nutritional Quality of MilkD.I. Givens and K.J. Shingfield, The University of Reading, UKIntroductionFactors Affecting Milk Protein ContentFactors Affecting Milk Fat ContentFuture TrendsReferences