Nutrition: From Science To LifeAuthor: Mary B. Grosvenor , Lori A. Smolin
Publisher: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Publish date: augustus 2001
The theme of scientific research is showcased in Research Discoveries. These highlight information on recent research advances as well as classic nutrition research studies. This material shows the reader how basic scientific research has led to discoveries that are key to our current understanding of nutrition. For example, in Ch. 1, the Seven Countries Study is discussed. This classic study, begun in 1958, identified the relationship between saturated fat and heart disease. Several features promote critical thinking and the use of risk/benefit analyses in making decisions about dietary choices. Making Decisions features appear in each chapter and they present issues related to consumer decision-making such as choices of foods, lifestyles, and dietary supplements. These discussions are unique, and briefly highlight topics of special interest that deserve more explanation than the scope of a one-semester course allows. Each Making Decisions exercise demonstrates how to analyze the risks vs. the potential benefits of dietary choices such as the use of soy products, low carbohydrate weight loss diets, and dietary supplements. Each chapter also contains Critical Thinking exercises. Designed to help students learn to apply their nutrition knowledge to everyday situations, these case histories guide students through the logical thought processes involved in solving nutrition problems. Many focus on optimizing diets to reduce disease risk and maintain health and thus support the theme of health promotion and disease prevention. Similar types of exercises are provided at the end of each chapter in Applying Critical Thinking Skills. The text has extensive coverage of dietary supplements. Whether or not you support their use, dietary supplements are now a part of what the public and readers view as the field of nutrition. Nutrition students should be educated about what supplements are, what they are marketed for, and what potential hazards they may pose. A risk/ benefit approach is taken in all discussions to show students how to make safe and valid decisions on the use of supplements. Chapter Introductions. Each chapter is uniquely introduced with a short case study. These health- and disease-oriented introductions help capture student interest and provide a taste of some of the critical thinking concepts that will be explained in the chapter. For example, the introduction to Ch. 6 discusses the experiences of a Peace Corp volunteer observing protein-energy malnutrition for the first time and wondering why a malnourished child would have a swollen abdomen. The readers follow the critical thinking involved in understanding this and are left with questions about how proteins are used in the body and how much is needed in the diet. Integrated Metabolism Information. Metabolism is one of the most challenging topics for readers. This text integrates coverage of metabolism with discussions of the macronutrients, micronutrients, and exercise rather than concentrating it into one chapter. This information is then interspersed with applications that draw interest and highlight its importance. This approach allows information on metabolism to build on and reinforce what was learned in the previous chapter. For example, the information on fat metabolism in Ch. 5 builds on what is presented about carbohydrates in Ch. 4. Ch. 7 integrates all of the information on energy production and Ch. 14 provides a review by applying this knowledge to a discussion of fitness and the exercising body. Health and Disease Relationships. Discussions of the relationships among nutrition, health, and disease are integrated throughout. This engages readers early on and reinforces student interest because it presents chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, topics of great interest, in association with those nutrients known to play a key role in increasing or decreasing the risk of disease. The relationships among nutrition, health, and disease illustrate how basic nutrition science is used to understand the disease process and choose a diet to reduce risk. This approach keeps readers motivated to learn the basics and prepares them to make decisions about their personal health and nutrition. The Total Dietary Pattern. Nutritional health depends on dietary patterns rather than single foods or nutrients. The importance of the total dietary pattern is stressed throughout. Each chapter features individual nutrients, but each also stresses the importance of the total diet. Life Stage Integration. Information about differences in nutrient requirements and nutrition concerns at various stages of life is also integrated throughout. The completeness of the material contained in each chapter is thereby increased, offering information relevant to students in all phases of life. Separate chapters that cover nutrition for pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and aging are included, but often a one-semester course cannot cover all this information. Life stage icons appear in each chapter to highlight issues and recommendations that apply to specific stages and circumstances of life. Cultural Diversity. Readers today are a diverse cultural group. This text uses multicultural food and dietary examples to relate to all students and to expose students to the foods and eating patterns of other cultures. Differences in the disease risk of various ethnic groups in relation to their genetic make-up and their native diet are also addressed. Environmental Issues. Environmental issues can have an impact on the nutrient composition of foods as well as on consumer food choices. Advances in food production and technology that help provide a safe and adequate food supply are affecting the environment. In turn, concerns about depletion of natural resources, pollution of the air and water, and the risks of genetically modified plants and animals affect food production. These issues are addressed in a separate chapter on food technology as well as throughout the text as they relate to specific nutrients and topics. Applying Critical Thinking Skills. These exercises that appear at the end of each chapter are divided into two parts; one that focuses on the student's personal diet and nutrition concerns and a second that relates to more general nutrition issues. Both require the student to think critically and apply key nutrition concepts. Some of these exercises feature clinical applications and therefore also support the health promotion and disease prevention themes of the book. Many of these can be done as collaborative leaning exercises, which encourage students to work together and learn from each other to solve a problem.