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Acceptable daily intake (ADI)A
An estimate of the amount of a substance in food or drinking water, expressed on a body-weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable risk (standard human = 60 kg). The ADI is listed in units of mg per kg of body weight.
Appropriate level of protection (ALOP)B
The level of protection deemed appropriate by the Member (member country of WTO) establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory. This concept is also referred to as the acceptable level of risk.
The determination of the relationship between the magnitude of exposure (dose) to a chemical, biological or physical agent and the severity and/or frequency of associated adverse health effects (response).
Any substance not intentionally added to food, which is present in such food as a result of the production (including operations carried out in crop husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine), manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination. The term does not include insect fragments, rodent hairs and other extraneous matter.
Food hygiene comprises conditions and measures necessary for the production, processing, storage and distribution of food designed to ensure a safe, sound, wholesome product fit for human consumption.
Good agricultural practices (GAP)
The application of knowledge that addresses environmental, economic and social sustainability for on-farm production and post-production processes resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food agricultural products.
Good hygiene practices (GHP)
All practices regarding the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of food chain.
Good manufacturing practices (GMP)D
Conformance with codes of practice, industry standards, regulations and laws concerning production, processing, handling, labelling and sale of foods decreed by industry, local, state, national and international bodies with the intention of protecting the consumer from food-borne disease, product adulteration and fraud.
An acronym for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, refers to a systematic approach that identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety.
A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.
Maximum level (ML)E
The Codex maximum level (ML) for a contaminant in a food or feed commodity is the maximum concentration of that substance recommended by the CAC to be legally permitted in that commodity.
Maximum residue level (MRL)
The maximum concentration of residue in a food or animal feed resulting from use of a veterinary drug or a pesticide, (expressed in mg/kg or µg/kg on a fresh weight basis).
Tolerable daily intake (TDI)F
Analogous to Acceptable Daily Intake. The term Tolerable is used for agents which are not deliberately added such as contaminants in food.
Estimated maximum amount of an agent, expressed on a body mass basis, to which each individual in a (sub) population may be exposed over a specified period without appreciable risk.
Reductive factor by which an observed or estimated no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) is divided to arrive at a criterion or standard that is considered safe or without appreciable risk.
Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Glossary of terms (http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/glossary.pdf
WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) (available at: http://www.wto.org/English/tratop_e/sps_e/spsagr_e.htm
FAO/WHO. 2005. Codex Alimentarius Commission. Procedural Manual. 15th Edition (available at: http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/procedural_manual.jsp
FAO/WHO. 2003. Assuring food quality and safety. Guidelines for strengthening national food control systems. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 76 (available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/y8705e/y8705e00.pdf
Codex General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Foods. CODEX STAN 193-1995.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Harmonization Project. IPCS Risk Assessment Terminology (http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/harmonization/areas/ipcsterminologyparts1and2.pdf