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Index page for: Meat Processing: Improving Quality

Table of Contents 1 Introduction2 Defining Meat Quality T. Becker, University of Hohenheim, GermanyIntroduction: what is quality?Consumer perceptions of qualitySupplier perceptions of qualityCombining consumer and supplier perceptions: the quality circleRegulatory definitions of qualityImproving meat and meat product qualityReferencesPart 1 Analysing Meat Quality3 Factors Affecting the Quality of Raw Meat R. K. Miller, Texas A & M University, USAIntroductionQuality, meat composition and structureBreed and genetic effects on meat qualityDietary influences on meat qualityRearing and meat qualitySlaughtering and meat qualityOther influences on meat qualitySummary: ensuring consistency in raw meat qualityFuture trendsSources of further information and adviceReferences4 The Nutritional Quality of MeatJ. Higgs, Food to Fit, and B. Mulvihill, The National Food Centre, IrelandIntroductionMeat and cancerMeat, fat content and diseaseFatty acids in meatProtein in meatMeat as a functional foodMeat and micronutrientsFuture trendsConclusionReferences5 Lipid-derived Flavours in Meat Products F. Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, CanadaIntroductionThe role of lipids in generating meaty flavoursLipid autoxidation and meat flavour deteriorationThe effect of ingredients on the flavour quality of meatThe evaluation of aroma compounds and flavour qualitySummaryReferences6 Modelling Colour Stability in MeatM. Jakobsen and G. Bertelsen, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DenmarkIntroductionExternal factors affecting colour stability during packaging and storageModelling dynamic changes in headspace compositionModelling in practice: fresh beefModelling in practice: cured hamInternal factors affecting colour stabilityValidation of modelsFuture trendsReferences7 Maximising Texture Quality in MeatD. Troy, The National Food Centre, IrelandIntroductionPre-slaughter influences on texturePost-slaughter influences on textureMeasuring meat textureFuture trendsSources of further information and adviceReferencesPart 2 Measuring Quality8 Quality Indicators for Raw MeatM. D. Aaslyng, Danish Meat Research Institute, DenmarkIntroductionTechnological qualityEating qualityDetermining eating qualitySampling proceduresFuture trendsAcknowledgementReferences9 Sensory Analysis of MeatG. R. Nute, University of Bristol, UKIntroductionThe sensory panelSensory testsCategory scalesSensory profile methods and comparisons with instrumental measurementsComparisons between countriesConclusionsReferences10 On-line Monitoring of Meat QualityH. J. Swatland, University of Guelph, CanadaIntroductionMeasuring electrical impedanceMeasuring pHAnalysing meat properties using NIR spectrophotometryMeasuring meat colour and other propertiesWater-holding capacitySarcomere lengthConnective tissueMarbling and fat contentMeat flavourBoar taintEmulsionsMeasuring changes during cookingConclusionsSources of further information and adviceReferences11 Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Meat and Meat ProductsJ. Corry, University of Bristol, UKIntroductionSamplingMicrobiological methodsQuality assuranceMicrobiological specificationsFuture trendsSources of further information and adviceReferencesPart 3 New Techniques for Improving Quality12 Modelling Beef Cattle Production to Improve QualityK. G. Rickert, University of Queensland, AustraliaIntroductionElements of beef cattle productionChallenges for modellersSimple model of herd structureFuture developmentsReferences13 New Developments in Decontaminating Raw Meat C. James, Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, UKIntroductionCurrent decontamination techniques and their limitationsWashingThe use of chemicalsNew methods: steamOther new methodsFuture trendsReferences14 Automated Meat ProcessingK. B. Madsen and J. U. Nielsen, Danish Meat Research Institute, DenmarkIntroductionCurrent developments in robotics in the meat industryAutomation in pig slaughteringCase study: the evisceration processAutomation of secondary processesFuture trends References and further reading15 New Developments in the Chilling and Freezing of MeatS. J. James, Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, UKIntroductionThe impact of chilling and freezing on textureThe impact of chilling and freezing on colourThe impact of chilling and freezing on drip loss and evaporative weight lossThe cold chainTemperature monitoringOptimising the design and operation of meat refrigerationSources of further information and adviceReferences16 High Pressure Processing of MeatJ. Culioli, INRA, and M. de Lamballerie-Anton, ENITIAA, FranceIntroduction: the principles of high pressure (HP) processingThe effect of HP on food componentsEffects on meat structureEffects on enzyme release and activityEffects on texture and colourEffects on lipid oxidationEffects on functional properties of meat proteinsEffects on microfloraCurrent applications and future developmentsConclusionsReferences17 Processing and Quality Control of Restructured Meat P. Sheard, University of Bristol, UKIntroductionProduct manufactureFactors affecting product quality: temperature, ice content, particle size and mechanical propertiesFactors affecting product quality: protein solubility and related factorsFactors affecting product quality: cooking distortionSensory and consumer testingFuture trendsSources of further information and adviceReferences18 Quality Control of Fermented Meat ProductsD. Demeyer, Gent University, Belgium, and L. Stahnke, Technical University of DenmarkIntroduction: the productThe quality conceptSensory quality and its measurementAppearance and colour: measurement and developmentTexture: measurement and developmentFlavour: measurement and developmentTaste and aroma: measurement and developmentThe control and improvement of qualityFuture trends in quality development19 The Fat Content of Meat and Meat Products A. P. Moloney, The National Food Centre, IrelandIntroductionFat and the consumerThe fat content of meatAnimal effects on the fat content and composition of meatDietary effects on the fat content and composition of meatFuture trendsSources of information and adviceReferences20 Quality Control of Low-fat Meat Products J. F. Kerry, University College Cork, IrelandIntroductionThe influence of fat on product qualityCurrent trends in product developmentTechniques for fat reduction in processed meatsFunctional ingredients used in low fat meat productsOther factors influencing product qualityFuture trendsSources of further information and adviceReferences21 PackagingJ. P. Kerry, University College Cork, IrelandIntroductionThe use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)Developments in MAP systemsActive packagingFuture trendsSources of further information and adviceReferences