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Index page for: Phytochemicals: A New Paradigm

Table of Contents VEGETABLES, FRUIT AND CANCER RISK: THE ROLE OF PHYTOCHEMICALSDiet and Cancer Risk: Fruits and Vegetables * Epidemiologic Evidence: Selected Example * Classification of Fruits and Vegetables * Biologic Plausibility: A Conceptual Framework * Bioactive Compounds in Fruits and Vegetables: Selected Examples * Fruit and Vegetable Intake in the U.S. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TARGETS OF CHRONIC DISEASEChemistry of Oxidation * Antioxidant Control of Oxidation * Prevention of Oxidation Formation * Scavenging of Activated Oxidants * Antioxidants * A Balance between Prooxidants and Antioxidants * Xenobiotic Mechanism * Diseases Whose Causes Can Directly Damage Certain Targets and Promote Disease * Oxidant Signaling Can Promote Certain Diseases * Cell Activation by Oxidants Can Promote Certain Diseases * Unresolved Issues * TOCOTRIENOLS IN METABOLISMBiochemistry * Animal Studies * Human Studies * Tocotrienols and Atherosclerosis * Avian Studies * Mode of Action * Dose Dependent Inhibition of HMGCoA Reductase * Tocotrienols and Cancer * Grain Amaranth Tocols PHYTOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS: ?-CAROTENE, TOCOPHEROL AND ASCORBIC ACIDBiological and Biochemical Significance of Vitamin E * Antioxidant Role * Prooxidant Activity * Biological and Biochemical Significance of Ascorbic Acid * Antioxidant Properties * Prooxidant Effects of Ascorbic Acid * Biological and Biochemical Significance of ?-Carotene * Antioxidant vs. Prooxidant Properties * Ascorbic Acid Interactions with Tocopherol * ?-Carotene Interactions with Tocopherol * Ascorbic Acid and Other Carotenoid Interactions with ?-Carotene DISTRIBUTION, BIOAVAILABILITY, AND METABOLISM OF CAROTENOIDS IN HUMANSEvidence for Nutritional Benefit of Carotenoids in Disease Prevention * Epidemiological Studies * Carotenoid Distribution in Fruits and Vegetables, Human Serum and Breastmilk * Carotenoids in Human Organs and Tissues * In vitro Studies of Chemopreventive Properties * A Recent in vivo Study with Rodents * Bioavailability of Lutein and Zeaxanthin from Purified Supplements * Metabolic Transformation of Carotenoids in Humans CAROTENOID-CAROTENOID INTERACTIONSIntestinal Metabolism and Absorption of Carotenoids in Disease Prevention * Micellar Solubilization * Uptake by Enterocytes * Intracellular Transport * Cleavage of Provitamin A Carotenoids * Incorporation into Intestinal Lipoproteins * Postprandial Kinetics of ?-Carotene and Oxycarotenoids * Postprandial Interactions of ?-Carotene and Oxycarotenoids * Health Implications CASE STUDY: DUNALIELLA ALGAL-DERIVED ?-CAROTENEBiology and Halotolerance * ?-Carotene Production * Caroteneogenesis * Biotechnology of ?-Carotene Production by Dunaliella * Extraction and Concentration * Natural versus Synthetic ?-Carotene * Dunaliella Market Products * Commercial Producers THE ORGANOSULFUR AND ORGANOSELENIUM COMPONENTS OF GARLIC AND ONIONSThiosulfinates in Allium Homogenates: Garlic Organosulfur Compounds * The Lachrymatory Factor (LF) and Other Onion Organosulfur Compounds * Organoselenium Compounds in Garlic and Onion * Transformation of Allium flavorants Following Cooking and Ingestion * Commercially Available Garlic Preparations * Summary of Allium Biological Activity EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF FUNGAL CHEMISTRYEcological, Evolutionary, and Biochemical Attributes of Fungi Relative to Human Nutrition and Health * Human Perspectives * Biochemical Affinities between Fungi, Plants and People * Fungal Biochemical Pathways and Products of Special Interest * Fungal Chemistry in Nutrition and health * Contributions to Knowledge from Traditional and Scientific Sources * Medicinal Fungi of Special Interest * Medical Chemistry of Lentinus edobes (Shiiatake) * Medicinal Chemistry of Ganoderma lucidum (LingZhi or Reishi) * Medicinal Chemistry of Cordyceps Species (Chan Hua, Semitake, Tochukaso) * General Nutritional Chemistry from Fungi * Fungal Chemistry Supporting Food Characteristics and Preparative Technologies * Future uses of Fungi to Expand the Diversity and Utility of Phytochemical Resources * Modification of Phytochemicals by Fungi * Biomass Reduction and Potential Chemical Derivatives * Saccharization and Other Processing * DEVELOPING CLAIMS FOR NEW PHYTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTSConsumer Attitudes about Food Labels * Regulatory Categories for Phytochemicals